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Wetumpka

Crater Name
Location
Latitude
Longitude
Diameter (km)
Age (Ma)*
Exposed
Drilled
Target Rock**
Bolide Type***
Wetumpka
Alabama, U.S.A.
N 32° 31'
W 86° 10'
6.5
81.0 ± 1.5
Y
Y
M
Chondrite?

 

DEM made using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Generated by Dr. Ed Albin, Fernbank Museum, Atlanta; north is up

Landsat – False color image made c. 1990, at about 30 m resolution showing the structure and surrounding area. Looking straight down. Submitted by David King

DEM of Wetumpka, north is to the top. Compiled by Dr. Kevin Evans, Southwest Missouri State University

Left: Location of the Wetumpka structure (dot) in Alabama. Major geological provinces are indicated.
Right: Generalized geological map of Wetumpka structure showing main terrains (discussed in text)
and adjacent geology. Crystalline-rim terrain (est); Upper Cretaceous
undeformed units (Ku); pre-Cretaceous crystalline units unaffected by Wetumpka structure (pK).
Faults are tick-marked on down side. Star (*) marks drilling location for two wells. From King et al. (2002)

This is a painting by space artist Jerry Armstrong of Atlanta, Georgia, showing Wetumpka impact crater during Late Cretaceous a few months to years after impact

Palaeogeography of the impact area during Late Cretaceous. Colour version originally in King (1997)

Map

Map

References
Alvarez, W. A., A candidate KT boundary crater in Alabama, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 74, p. 387. 1993.
Bentley, R. D., T.L. Neathery and G.C. Lines., A probable impact-type structure near Wetumpka, Alabama, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 51, p. 342. 1970.
Carrington, T. J., Current studies of Cretaceous formations in eastern Alabama and Columbus, Georgia: Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Alabama Geological Society Guidebook 20, 52p. 1983.
Hall, J. C., Ground zero – The Wetumpka Astrobleme: Alabama Heritage Magazine, Fall issue, p. 6-13. Reprinted in Alabama Geological Society Guidebook 34c (1997). 1996.
King Jr., D. T., Neathery, T.L., Petruny, L.W., Koeberl, C., Hames, W.E., Shallow-marine impact origin of the Wetumpka structure (Alabama, USA), Earth and Planetary Science Letters 202 p. 541 - 549. 2002.
King, Jr,D.T., Neathery, T.L., Petruny, L.W., Koeberl,C. and Hames, W.E., Evidence confirming meteoritic impact at Wetumpka crater, Alabama, USA, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v 34, n 4, p 63-64. 1999.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery and L. W. Petruny,., Results of investigations of Wetumpka impact crater, 1998-2003, Alabama Geological Society Newsletter, v. 17, no. 2, p. 4 and 6. 2004.
King, D. T., L. W. Petruny and T. L. Neathery., Paleobiologic effects of the Late Cretaceous Wetumpka marine impact, a 7.6-km diameter impact structure, Gulf Coastal Plain, USA, in Cockell, C, I. Gilmour, and C. Koeberl, eds., Biological processes associated with impact events (Impact Studies): Berlin, Springer-Verlag, (in press). 2004.
King, D. T., L.W. Petruny and T.L. Neathery., The horseshoe-shaped rim of Wetumpka marine impact crater -- from oblique impact or heterogeneity in the rim? Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Abstracts with Programs, v. 35 (in press). 2004.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery and L. W. Petruny., Crater-filling sediments of the Wetumpka marine-target impact crater (Alabama, USA), in Dypvik, H., M.J. Burchell, and P. Claeys, eds., Cratering in marine environments and on ice (Impact Studies): Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 97-113. 2003.
King, D. T., L. W. Petruny and T.L. Neathery., Structure-filling stratigraphy of the marine-target Wetumpka impact structure, Alabama, USA, USGS-ICDP Workshop on deep drilling in the central crater of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA (Proceedings volume): U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2004-1016 [CD-ROM], p. 32-33. 2003.
King, D. T., L. W. Petruny and T.L. Neathery., Biological effects of a Late Cretaceous marine impact structure (Gulf Coastal Plain, USA), Biological processes in impact craters, Abstract book of the 10th ESF Workshop (Cambridge), p. 38. 2003.
King, D. T., Neathery, T.L., Petruny, W., Koeberl, C., Hames,W., Shallow-marine impact origin of the Wetumpka structure (Alabama, USA), Earth and Planetary Science, v.202, p.541-549. 2002.
King, D. T., Neathery, T.L., Petruny, W., Koeberl, C., Hames, W. Neathery, L. Petruny, L. W. Koeberl, C. Hames,W., Shallow-marine impact origin of the Wetumpka structure (Alabama, USA), Earth and Planetary Science Letters 202, 541-549. 2002.
King, D. T., L. W. Petruny and T.L. Neathery., Use of upward-facies transition analysis to help interpret stratigraphy drilled at Wetumpka impact structure, Alabama, USA: Impacts, a Geological and Astronomical Perspective, Abstracts of the 8th ESF Workshop (Prague), Impacts, a Geological and Astronomical Perspective, Abstracts of the 8th ESF Workshop (Prague), in press. 2002.
King, D. T., L. W. Petruny and T.L. Neathery., Upward-facies transition analysis in interpretation of stratigraphic sequence within the Wetumpka impact structure, a marine impact feature in Alabama, USA, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union [AGU Fall 2002 Meeting], v. 83, in press. 2002.
King, D. T., L. W. Petruny and T.L. Neathery., Stratigraphy drilled at Wetumpka impact structure, Alabama, Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 318. 2002.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery, L. W. Petruny, W. E. Hames,C.Koeberl., Wetumpka, a Late Cretaceous shallow-shelf impact structure in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Alabama, USA, Submarine Craters and Ejecta-crater Correlation, Abstracts and Proceedings of the Norwegian Geological Society and the 7th ESF Workshop (Longyearbyen, Norway), p. 40-41. 2001.
King, D. T., Neathery and L. W. Petruny., Late Cretaceous shallow shelf impact in Gulf Coastal Plain of Alabama, Geological Society of America, Bolide Impact on Wet Targets, Abstracts (Nevada and Utah Field Forum), 1p. 2001.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery, L. W. Petruny,C.Koeberl and W.E.Hames., Evidence confirming meteoritic impact at Wetumpka crater, Alabama, USA, Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond (Lunar and Planetary Institute Contribution 1053, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas), p. 97. 2000.
King, D. T., Neathery and L. W. Petruny., Wetumpka impact structure (Alabama), a Late Cretaceous marine-target crater, International Forum on Investigations of the Earth - New Information on Earth and Space Sciences (Yamaguchi University, Japan), Program and Abstracts, p. 26-27. 2000.
King, D. T., Neathery and L. W. Petruny., Wetumpka impact structure (Alabama), a Late Cretaceous marine-target crater, Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 7, p. A-161. 2000.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery, L. W. Petruny, C. Koeberl,W.E.Hames and L.W.Wolf., Evidence of meteoritic impact and crater-filling stratigraphy, Wetumpka, Alabama, USA, 31st International Geological Congress (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Abstracts Volume, abstract no. GS-25.5.9, 1p. 2000.
King, D. T., L. W. Petruny and T. L. Neathery., Drilling into the Wetumpka impact crater, Alabama, VOYAGES!, May/June, p. 8-10. [Reprinted in Journey (College of Sciences and Mathematics, Auburn University), 2000, p. 3, 8.]. 1999.
King, D. T., L. W. Petruny., Wetumpka impact crater guidebook, Auburn, Alabama, 29p. 1999.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery and L. W. Petruny., Impactite facies within the Wetumpka impact crater, Alabama, Lunar and Planetary Science [Lunar and Planetary Science Conference abstracts], v. 30, abstract no. 1634, 1p. 1999.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery, L. W. Petruny, C. Koeberl,W.E.Hames and L.W.Wolf., Evidence of meteoritic impact, crater-filling stratigraphy, and collateral effects of impact at Wetumpka crater, Alabama, USA, Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Abstracts with Programs, v. 31, no. 7, p. A-124. 1999.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery., Renewed interest in the Wetumpka impact crater, Alabama Geological Society Newsletter, v. 11, no. 2, p. 17. 1998.
King, D. T., Wetumpka Melange, a new stratigraphic unit in Alabama, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 48, p. 151-158. 1998.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery., The Wetumpka asteroid impact structure in Alabama, U.S.A. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Annual Convention Program, v. 7, p. 358a f. 1998.
King, D. T., T. L. Neathery and L. W. Petruny., Impactite facies in drill core from the Wetumpka impact crater, Alabama, Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Abstracts with Programs, v. 30, no. 7, addendum p. 4. 1998.
King, D. T., Wetumpka Melange, a new stratigraphic unit in Alabama, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin [GCAGS Meeting Abstracts], v. 82, p. 1784. 1998.
King, D. T., The Wetumpka impact crater and the Late Cretaceous impact record, in Neathery, T.L., D.T. King, Jr., and L.W. Wolf, The Wetumpka impact structure and related features: Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Alabama Geological Society Guidebook 34c, p. 25 56. 1997.
King, D. T., T.L. Neathery., Nature of the Wetumpka impact crater in Alabama, USA, Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 6, p. A 80. 1997.
King, D. T. Jr., Neathery, T. L., Petruny., Impactite Facies Within the Wetumpka Impact-Crater Fill, Alabama, LPSC XXX, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX, Abstr. 1634 (CD-ROM). 1999.
King, D. T. Jr., Nethery, T.L., Petruny, L.W., Koeberl, C., Hames, W.E., Wolf,L.W., Evidence of meteoritic impact, crater-filling stratigraphy, and collateral effects of impact at Wetumpka crater, Alabama, USA, 1999 GSA Annual Meeting - Denver, Colorado. Abs. No. 50205. 1999.
Neathery, T. L., D.T. King, Jr. and L.W. Wolf (eds.), The Wetumpka impact structure and related features: Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Alabama Geological Society Guidebook 34c, 68p. 1997.
Neathery, T. L., D.T. King, Jr and L. W. Wolf., Introduction and Field trip (road log and descriptions), in Neathery, T.L., D.T. King, Jr., and L.W. Wolf, (eds.), The Wetumpka impact structure and related features: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 1997.
Neathery, T. L., D.T. King, Jr. and L.W. Wolf,eds., The Wetumpka impact structure and related features: Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Geological Society Guidebook 34c, 68p. 1997.
Neathery, T. L., Stop descriptions (Wetumpka astrobleme), in Carrington, T.J. (ed.) Current studies of Cretaceous formations in eastern Alabama and Columbus, Georgia: Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Alabama Geological Society Guidebook 20, p. 48-52. 1983.
Neathery, T. L., R.D. Bentley and G.C. Lines., Cryptoexplosion structure near Wetumpka, Alabama, Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 87, p. 567-573. [Reprinted in Alabama Geological Society Guidebook No. 20 (1983) and No. 34c (1997).]. 1976.
Nelson, A. I., Geological mapping of Wetumpka impact crater area, Elmore County, Alabama, [unpublished M.S. thesis]: Auburn, Alabama, Auburn University, 187p. 2000.
Wolf, L. W., Plescia and M.G. Steltenpohl., Geophysical investigation of a ‘suspect’ impact crater in Wetumpka, Alabama, Alabama Geological Society Guidebook 34c, p. 57-68. 1997.

 

* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

***
From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite)

 

 

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