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Vredefort

Crater Name
Location
Latitude
Longitude
Diameter (km)****
Age (Ma)*
Exposed
Drilled
Target Rock**
Bolide Type***
Vredefort
South Africa
S 27° 0'
E 27° 30'
160
2023 ± 4
Y
Y
M
Chondrite

 

Geology Map - submitted by Martin Tuchscherer

Shuttle

Magnetics - Uwe Reimold image

Bouguer gravity image (courtesy of South African Council for Geoscience)

Space Shuttle Image STS 51I-33-56AA

DEM image Provided by Dr. Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho

Image Provided by Dr. Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho

References
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Reimold, W. U., Dressler, B. O., The economic significance of impact processes (abstract). Abstracts for the International Workshop on Meteorite Impact on the Early Earth, Perth, Australia, pp. 36-37. 1990.
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Reimold, W. U., Fletcher, P., Ferreira, C.A.M. and Colliston,W.P., The Vredefort structure - new results, with a focus on structural aspects of the Vredefort Dome and surrounding areas of the Witwatersrand Basin (abstract). Abstracts for the International Workshop on Meteorite Impact on the Early Earth, Perth, Australia, pp. 38-39. 1990.
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Reimold, W. U., Gibson, R.L., Colliston, W.P. and Layer,P.W., The Vredefort Dome in the Witwatersrand basin: New argon chronological data and the geochronological record of the central Kaapvaal craton between >3 and <1 Ga ago (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXVI, pp. 1157-1158. 1995.
Reimold, W. U., Hart, R.J. and Andreoli,M.A.G., Fracture density statistics along radial traverses through the crystalline basement of the Vredefort dome, South Africa-new data from a NNW-traverse (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXI, pp. 1005-1006. 1990.
Reimold, W. U., Horsch, H. and Durrheim,R.J., The "Bronzite"-Granophyre from the Vredefort Structure - A detailed analytical study and reflections on the genesis of one of Vredefort's enigmas. Proceedings Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 20th, pp. 433-450. 1990.
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Reimold, W. U., Horz, F., Textures of experimentally shocked (5.1-35.5 GPa) Witwatersrand quartzite (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XVII, pp. 703-704. 1986.
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Reimold, W. U., The Vredefort Dome - review of geology & deformation phenomena & status report on current knowledge & remaining problematics (5 years after the cryptoexpl. wks), International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, pp. 59-60. 1992.
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* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

***
From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite)

****This revised diameter is the best estimate for the collapsed transient crater diameter (rim-to-rim dimension). Our previous diameters cited maximum damage diameter estimates. There is considerable confusion in the literature regarding the definition of "diameter". In the Earth Impact Database, we are striving to cite the collapsed transient crater value where possible. This can affect the order of size: for example, Sudbury's maximum damage diameter is ~260 km (as defined by the outermost ring diameter), while that of Chicxulub is ~240 km. However, the rim-to-rim diameter of Sudbury is less than that of Chicxulub's (130 versus 150 km, respectively).

 

 

 

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