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Earth Impact Database Sorted by : | Age | Diameter | Name |

 

Sudbury

Crater Name
Location
Latitude
Longitude
Diameter (km)****
Age (Ma)*
Exposed
Drilled
Target Rock**
Bolide Type***
Sudbury
Ontario, Canada
N 46° 36'
W 81° 11'
130
1850 ± 3
Y
Y
C
-

 

Aerial radar

DEM

DEM

References
Ontario Geological Survey special volume, Proceedings of the Sudbury - Noril'sk Symposium. Lightfoot, P.C., and Naldrett, A.J., eds., Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, Toronto, v. 5, 423 p. 1994.
Abramov, O., Kring, D. A., Impact-Induced Hydrothermal system at the Sudbury Crater: Duration Temperatures, Mechanics and Biological Implcations, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV. 2004.
Abramov, O., Kring, D. A., Finite-difference modeling of impact-induced hydrothermal systems, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV. 2003.
Addison, W. D., Brumpton, G.R., Vallini, D.A., McNaughton, N.J., Davis, D.W., Kissin, S.A., Fralick, P.W., Hammond,A.L., Discovery of distal ejecta from the 1850 Ma Sudbury impact event, Geology, v. 33 , n. 3 , p. 193-196. 2005.
Ames, D. E., Watkinson, D.H. and Parrish,R.R., Dating of a regional hydrothermal system induced by the 1850 Ma Sudbury impact event. Geology, v. 26, pp. 447-450. 1998.
Ames, D. E., Gibson, H.L. and Jonasson,I.R., Impact-induced hydrothermal base metla mineralization, Whitewater Group, Sudbury structure (abstract). Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution,. 1997.
Ames, D. E., Gibson, H. L., Controls on and geological setting of regional hydrothermal alteration within the Onaping Formation, footwall to the Errington and Vermilion base metal deposits, Sudbury Structure, Ontario, Current Research 1995-E; Geological Survey of Canada, pp. 161-173. 1995.
Ames, D. E., Gibson, H.L., Watkinson, D.H. and Jonasson,I.R., Large semi-conformable alteration zones within the Onaping Formation (abstract). GCS Forum '95,. 1995.
Ariskin, A. A., Deutsch, A. Ostermann,M., Sudbury Igneous Complex: simulating phase equilibria and in situ differentiation for two proposed parental magmas, in Large meteorite impacts and planetary evolution II ed B.O. Dressler & V.L. Sharpton. Geological Society of America Special Paper 339 p 373-397. 1999.
Ariskin, A. A., Simulating phase equilibria and in situ differentiations for the proposed parental Sudbury magmas (abstract). Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution,. 1997.
Avermann, M. E., The Green Member of the Onaping Formation, the collapsed fireball layer of the Sudbury impact structure, Ontario Canada, in Large meteorite impacts and planetary evolution II ed B.O. Dressler & V.L. Sharpton. Geological Society of America Special Paper 339 p 323-330. 1999.
Avermann, M. E., Investigations on the Green Member of the Onaping Formation, Sudbury structure, Ontario, Canada (abstract). Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution,. 1997.
Avermann, M. E., Origin of the polymict, allochthonous breccias of the Onaping Formation,Sudbury Structure, Ontario, Canada. Geological Society of America Special Paper 293, pp. 265-274. 1994.
Avermann, M. E., Origin of the polymict, allochthonous breccias of the Onaping Formation, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Geological Society of America Special Paper (in press). 1994.
Avermann, M. E., Sudbury project (University of Munster-Ontario Geological Survey): (1) Summary of results - an updated impact model (abstract). International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetray Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, pp. 5-6. 1992.
Avermann, M. E., Brockmeyer, P., The Onaping formation of the Sudbury structure (Canada): an example of allochthonous impact breccias (extended abstract). Tectonophysics, v. 216, pp. 227-234. 1992.
Avermann, M. E., Sudbury project (University fo Munster-Ontario Geological Survey): (6) Origin of the polymict, allochthonous breccias of the Onaping formation (abstract). International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, pp. 4-5. 1992.
Avermann, M. E., Brockmeyer, P., The Onaping formation of the Sudbury structure (Canada): An example for allochthonous impact breccias (abstract). Pesonen, L.J. and Niemisara, H., eds., Symposium Fennoscandian Impact Structures, p. 42. 1990.
Ballhaus, C., Tredoux, M. and A. Spath., Phase relations in the Fe-Ni-Cu-PGE-S system at magmatic temperature and application to massive sulphide ores of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Journal of Petrology, v 42, n 10, p 1911-1926. 2001.
Basu, A. R., Impact-triggered mafic magmatism in Earth history (abstract). Canadian Continental Drilling Program Report 88-2, Scientific Drilling: The Sudbury Structure, p. 21. 1988.
Beales, F. W., Lozej, G. P., Additional note on the origin of the Sudbury structure. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 13, pp. 179-181. 1976.
Beales, F. W., Lozej, G. P., Sudbury basin sediments and the meteoritic impact theory of origin for the Sudbury structure. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 12, pp. 629-635. 1975.
Becker, L., Poreda, R. J., Bunch., Fullerenes, Helium and Impact Events on the Earth Throughout Geologic Time: Implications for Changes in the Biostratigraphic Record, GSA Annual Meeting 1999, Abstr. 51972. 1999.
Becker, L., Bada, J.L., Poreda, R.J. and Bunch,T.E., Extraterrestrial helium (He@C60) trapped in fullerenes in the Sudbury impact structure (abstract). Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution,. 1997.
Becker, L., Poreda, R.J. and Bada,J.L., Extraterrestrial helium trapped in fullerenes in the Sudbury impact structure. Science, v. 72, pp. 249-252. 1996.
Becker, L., Bada, J.L. and Poreda,R.J., Extraterrestrial He trapped in fullerenes in the Sudbury impact structure (abstract). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, pp. A12-A13. 1996.
Becker, L., Bada, J. L., Fullerenes in the K/T boundary: Are they a result of global wildfires (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXVI, pp. 85-86. 1995.
Becker, L., Bada, J.L., Winans, R.E., Hunt, J.E., Bunch, T.E. and French,B.M., Fullerenes in the 1.85-billion-year-old Sudbury impact structue. Science, v. 265, pp. 642-645. 1994.
Becker, L., Bada, J.L., Winans, R.E., Hunt, J.E., Bunch, T.E. and French,B.M., Fullerenes in the 1.85 billion-year-old Sudbury impact structure (abstract). Sudbury Geology Workshop and Fieldtrip,. 1994.
Beswich, A. E., Compositional discontinuities within the main mass of the North Range of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (abstract). Sudbury Geology Workshop and Fieldtrip,. 1994.
Bethune, K. M., The Sudbury dyke swarm and its bearing on the tectonic development of the Grenville Front, Ontario, Canada. Precambrian Research, v. 85, pp. 117-146. 1997.
Binney, W. P., Foy, R.A., Halladay, S.H., Poulin, R.Y. and Sweeny,J.M., The Lindsley Ni-Cu-PGE deposit and its geological setting (abstract). The Canadian Mineralogist, Journal of the Mineralogical Association of Canada, v.30, p. 485-486. 1992.
Bird, R. T., Roest, W.R., Ernst, R.E. and Buchan,K., Restoring continental deformation with gridded geophysical data: Preliminary reconstruction of the Matachewan dyke swarm and Kapuskasing Structural Zone (abstract). Canadian Geophysical Union, Banff, AB, 50. 1995.
Bischoff, L., Dressler, B O., Avermann, M E., Brockmeyer, P, Lakomy, R and Müller-Mohr,V., Sudbury project (University of Munster-Ontario Geological Survey): (2) Field studies 1984-1989 - summary of results (abstract). International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, p. 7. 1992.
Blais, E., Livelybrooks, D. and Mareschal,M., Analysis and 3D modelling of magnetotelluric data over a deep massive sulphide deposit, Sudbury Structure, Ontario (abstract). GCU, Program with Abstracts, Banff, AB. 1994.
Boast, M. and Spray, J.G. 2006. Superimposition of a thrust-transfer fault system on a large impact structure: implications for Ni-Cu-PGE exploration at Sudbury. Economic Geology, v.101 1583-1594.
Boast, M., Spray, J. G., A comparison of four transects through the North Range metamorphic aureole of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Sudbury, Ontario, 1st Joint Meeting, Northeastern Section, GSA and Atlantic Geoscience Society, Abstracts. 2003.
Boast, M., Spray, J. G., Hidden ore: using thermal metamorphism to determine shortening on thrust faults cutting the sudbury igneous complex, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v.34, n.06, September 2002. 2002.
Boast, M., Holmes, T., Spray., Geology of the footwall rocks on the North Range of the Sudbury Impact Crater, and investigations into the nature of the metamorphic aureole, Canadian Tectonics Group Annual Meeting, Sudbury 2001, Abstracts. 2001.
Boast, M., Holmes, T., Spray., The Metamorphic Aureole of the Sudbury Structure, Summit 2000, GSA Annual Meeting Program with Abstracts. 2000.
Boerner, D. E., Milkereit, B., Wu,J.and M.Salisbury., Seismic images and three-dimensional architecture of a Proterozoic shear zone in the Sudbury Structure (Superior Province, Canada). Tectonics, v. 19, n. 2, p. 397-405. 2000.
Boerner, D. E., Milkereit, B. and A. Davidson., Geoscience impact: a synthesis of studies of the Sudbury Structure. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, V. 37, p. 477-501. 2000.
Boerner, D. E., Milkereit, B., Structural evolution of the Sudbury impact structure in the light of seismic reflection data, Geological Society of America, Special Paper 339, p 419-429. 1999.
Boerner, D. E., Kellett, R. and Mareschal,M., Inductive source EM sounding of the Sudbury Structure. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 21, p. 943-946. 1994.
Boerner, D. E., Milkereit, B. and Naldrett,A.J., Introduction to the Special Section on the Lithoprobe Sudbury Project. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 21, p. 919-922. 1994.
Boerner, D. E., Kellett, R. and Mareschal,M., Lithoprobe EM studies of the Sudbury structure (abstract). Canadian Geophysical Union, Banff, Alberta. 1993.
Bohor, B. F., Betterton, W. J., Shocked zircons in the Onaping formation: Further proof of impact origin (abstract). International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, pp. 9-10. 1992.
Brockmeyer, P., Deutsch, A. and Buhl,D., Sudbury impact structure (Ontario, Canada): Isotope systematics (abstract). Pesonen, L.J. and Niemisara, H., eds., Symposium Fennoscandian Impact Structures, p. 43. 1990.
Brockmeyer, P., Deutsch, A., The origin of the breccias in the lower Onaping formation, Sudbury structure (Canada): Evidence from petrographic observations & Sr-Nd isotope data (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XX, pp. 113-114. 1989.
Brocoum, S. J., Dalziel, I. W. D., The Sudbury Basin, the Southern Province, the Grenville Front, and the Penokean Orogeny: discussion. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 87, pp. 958. 1976.
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Brooks, E. R., The Sudbury Basin, the Southern Province, the Grenville Front, and the Penokean Orogeny: Discussion and reply. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 87, pp. 954-958. 1976.
Buhl, D., Deutsch, A. and Ostermann,M., Isotope systematics support: The impact origin of the Sudbury Structure (Canada) (abstract). Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth, First International Workshop, Nordlingen, Germany. 1993.
Buhl, D., Deutsch, A., Lakomy,R., Brockmeyer, P. and Dressler,B., Sudbury project (University of Munster-Ontario Geological Survey): (7) Sr-Nd in heterolithic breccias and gabbroic dikes (abstract). International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, pp. 11-12. 1992.
Bunch, T. E., Becker, L., Schultz, P.H. and Wolbach,W.S., New potential sources for Black Onaping carbon (abstract). Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution,. 1997.
Butler, H. R., Lineament analysis of the Sudbury multiring impact structure. Geological Society of America Special Paper 293, pp. 319-329. 1994.
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Chai, G., Eckstrand, O. R., A new intrepretation of the Sudbury Igneous Complex: A two magma model. Summary Report1993-1994, Canada, Ontario, Northern Ontario Development Agreement, Minerals, edited by: N. Wood, R. Shannon, L. Owsiacki, M. Walters, design: J. King. 1994.
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Chai, G., Eckstrand, O.R. and Gregoire,D.C., Low level PGE analysis on the Sudbury Igneous Complex and its country rocks, GSC Forum, Program with Abstracts, p. 21. 1993.
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Clark, J. F., Magnetic survey data at meteoritic impact sites in North America. Geomagnetic Service of Canada, Earth Physics Branch Open File # 83-5, 30 p. 1983.
Coats, C. J. A., Snadjr, P., Ore deposits of the north range, Onaping-Levack area, Sudbury. Pye, E.G., Naldrett, A.J. and Giblin, P.E., eds., The Geology and Ore Deposits of the Sudbury Structure, Min. of Natural Resources, Toronto, v. 1, pp. 327-346. 1984.
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Cowan, E. J., Shanks, W.S. and Schwerdtner,W.M., Geometrical significance of the geological map pattern of the Sudbury structure (abstract). The Canadian Mineralogist, Journal of the Meteoritical Association of Canada, v. 30, p. 486-487. 1992.
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* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

***
From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite).

****This revised diameter is the best estimate for the collapsed transient crater diameter (rim-to-rim dimension). Our previous diameters cited maximum damage diameter estimates. There is considerable confusion in the literature regarding the definition of "diameter". In the Earth Impact Database, we are striving to cite the collapsed transient crater value where possible. This can affect the order of size: for example, Sudbury's maximum damage diameter is ~260 km (as defined by the outermost ring diameter), while that of Chicxulub is ~240 km. However, the rim-to-rim diameter of Sudbury is less than that of Chicxulub's (130 versus 150 km, respectively).

 

 

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