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Earth Impact Database Sorted by : | Name | Diameter | Age |


Serpent Mound

Crater Name
Diameter (km)
Age (Ma)*
Target Rock**
Bolide Type***
Serpent Mound
Ohio, U.S.A.
N 39° 2'
W 83° 24'
< 320


Photograph of prehistoric Serpent Mound earthworks
(circa 800 AD) located in the SW quadrant of the impact structure
(length of mound = 800 m, 0.5 miles)

Geologic Map

Batsche, R. W., Field study and geological interpretation of a gravity anomaly located in the Fayette County, Ohio area. Master's Thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus. 1963.
Baranoski, M.T., Watts, D.R., The Serpent Mound distrurbance of southern Ohio; a structurally complex impact site with hydrocarbon potential from the Ordovician and Cambrian system resevoirs. AAPG Bulletin, vol. 85, pp.1530. 2001.
Bridges, L. W. D., Ames depression, Oklahoma: Domal collapse and later subsurface solution. Ames Structure in Northwest Oklahoma and Similar Features: Origin and Petroleum Production (1995 Symposium), K. S. Johnson and J. A. Campbell, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma, v. Circular 100, pp. 153-168. 1997.
Bucher, W. H., Cryptovolcanic structures in the United States (with discussion). 16th International Geological Congress, Report, v. 2, pp. 1055-1084. 1936.
Bull, C. B., Corbato, C.E. and Zahn,J.C., Gravity survey of the Serpent Mound area, southern Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science, v. 67, pp. 359-372. 1967.
Cohen, A. J., Bunch, T.E. and Reid,A.M., Coesite discoveries establish cryptovolcanics as fossil meteorite craters. Science, v. 134, pp. 1624-1625. 1961.
Cohen, A. J., Reid, A.M. and Bunch,T.E., Central uplifts of terrestrial and lunar craters: 1, Kentland and Serpent Mount structures (abstract). Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 67, pp. 1632-1633. 1962.
Dietz, R. S., Meteorite impact suggested by shatter cones in rock. Science, v. 131, pp. 1781-1784. 1960.
Grieve, R. A. F., Masaitis, V. L., The economic potential of terrestrial impact craters. International Geology Review, v. 36, pp. 105-151. 1994.
Grieve, R. A. F., The record of impact on Earth: Implications for a major Cretaceous/Tertiary impact event. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, pp. 25-37. 1982.
Gurov, E. P., Gurova, E. P., Impact structures on the Earth's surface (in Russian). Geologicheskii Zhurnal, v. 47, pp. 117-124. 1987.
Heyl, A. V., Brock, M. R., Zinc occurrence in the Serpent Mound structure of Southern Ohio. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 450-D, pp. D95-D97. 1962.
Koeberl, C., Buchanan, P. C., Carlton., Petrography and Geochemistry of Drill Core Samples from the Serpent Mound Structure, Ohio: Confirmation of Impact Origin, LPSC XXIX, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX, (CD-ROM). 1998.
Masaitis, V. L., Danilin, A.N., Maschak, M.S., Raykhlin, A.I., Selivanovskaya, T.V. and Shadenkov,Ye.M., The Geology of Astroblemes (in Russian). Leningrad, Nedra, 231 p. 1980.
Masaitis, V. L., The deep structure of impact craters (in Russian). Razvedka i okhrana nedr, v. 8, pp. 10-13. 1991.
Reidel, S. P., Geology of the Serpent mound cryptoexplosion structure. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Cincinnati, Ohio. 1972.
Reidel, S. P., The Serpent Mound disturbance, south-central Ohio: An example of hydrotectonics? (abstract). EOS, v. 62, p. 1047. 1981.
Reidel, S.P., Bedrock geology of the Serpent Mound cryptoexplosion structure, Adams, Highland, and Pike counties, Ohio. State of Ohio, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey. 1975.
Reidel, S.P., Geologic Map of the Saddle Mountains, southcentral, Washington: Division of Geology and Earth Resources Geologic Map GM-38. 1989.
Reidel, S.P., Koucky, F.L. and Stryker, R.J., The Serpent Mound disturbance, southwestern Ohio. American Journal of Science, vol. 282, no. 9, pp. 1343-1375. 1982.
Sappenfield, L. W., A magnetic survey of the Adams County cryptovolcanic structure. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Cincinnati, Ohio, 27 p. 1950.
Schedl, A., Applications of twin analysis to studying meteorite impact structures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.244, pp.530-540, 2006.
Schmidt, R. G., McFarlan, A.C., Noscow, E., Bowman, R.S. and Alberts,R., Examination of Ordovician through Devonian stratigraphy and the Serpent Mount chaotic structure area. Geologic Society of America, Cincinnati Meeting, Guidebook for Field Trips, Field Trip 8, pp. 259-293. 1961.
Skrynnik, G. V., Meteorite craters on the Earth (in Russian). Astronomicheskii Vestnik, v. 11, pp. 198-210. 1977.
Zahn, J. C., A gravity survey of the Serpent Mound area in southern Ohio. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus. 1965.


* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite)



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