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Earth Impact Database Sorted by : | Name | Diameter | Age |



Crater Name
Diameter (km)****
Age (Ma)*
Target Rock**
Bolide Type***
N 56° 58'
E 43° 43'
167 ± 3


Cross Section Diagram modified from Masaitis & Naumov (1993)

Abramov, O., Kring, D. A., Finite-difference modeling of impact-induced hydrothermal systems, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV. 2003.
Dabizha, A. I., A new interpretation of the structure of meteorite craters (in Russian). Astronomicheskii Vestnik, v. 11, pp. 73-77. 1977.
Dabizha, A. I., Fedynsky, V. V., The Earth's "star wounds" and their diagnosis by geophysical methods (in Russian). "Zemlya i Vselennaya", v. 3, pp. 56-64. 1975.
Dabizha, A. I., Fel'dman, V. I., The geophysical properties of some astroblemes in the USSR (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 40, pp. 91-101. 1982.
Dabizha, A. I., Ivanov, B. A., A geophysical model of the structure of meteorite craters and some problems of the mechanics of crater formation (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 37, pp. 160-167. 1978.
Dabizha, A. I., Krass, M. S., The evolution of explosive meteorite craters on Earth (in Russian). "Zemlya i Vselennaya", v. 5, pp. 80-88. 1975.
Fedosova, S. P., Sazonova, L.V. and Fel'dman,V.I., Particulars of diaplietic transformation of hornblende from Puchezh-Katunk astrobleme (USSR) (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 24, p. 265. 1989.
Fedosova, S. P., Sazonova, L.V., Stchebletkin, S.I. and Fel'dman,V.I., Diaplectic transformation of hornblende from Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme, USSR (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XX, pp. 277-278. 1989.
Feldman V., Sazonova, L., Diaplectic transformation peculiarities of rock forming minerals in Puchezh-Katunky astrobleme rocks (abstract). Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium 22, pp. 16-17. 1995.
Feldman V., Sazonova, L., Diaplectic transformations of hornblende (Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme, Russia) (abstract). Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium 22, p. 18. 1995.
Fel'dman, V. I., Diaplectic transformation of minerals: Vorotilov drill core, Puchezh-Katunki impact crater, Russia (abstract). International Conference on Large Meteorite Imapcts and Planetray Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, p. 25. 1992.
Fel'dman, V. I., Rare-Earth elements in astrobleme impactites. Geochemistry International, v. 32, pp. 24-48. 1995.
Fel'dman, V. I., Sazonova, L.V., Korotaeva, N.N., Guseva, L.B. and Budkov,G.K., Diaplectic transformation of minerals in Vorotilov core, Puchezh-Katunk Astrobleme, Russia (preliminary data) (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXIII, p. 351. 1992.
Fel'dman, V. I., Sazonovoa, L.V. and Nosova,A.A., The geological structure and petrography of impactites of the Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme (Volga region) (in Russian). Byulleten Moskovoskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody, v. 59, pp. 53-63. 1984.
Ferriere, L., et al., Ballen quartz and cristobalite in impactites: New investigations, Special Paper of the Geological Society of America, Issue 465, pp. 609-618, 2010
Firsov, L. V., Kieffer, S. W., Concerning the meteoritic origin of the Puchezh-Katunki crater. Meteoritics, v. 8, pp. 233-244. 1973.
Firsov, L. V., Meteoritic origin of the Puchezh-Katunki crater (in Russian). Geotektonika, v. 2, pp. 106-118. 1965.
Gordin, V. M., Dabizha, A I., Krass, M S., Mikailov, V O. and Myasnikov,V P., Geophysical and geomechanical aspects of the study of meteorite structures. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 20, pp. 1-11. 1979.
Grieve, R. A. F., Masaitis, V. L., The economic potential of terrestrial impact craters. International Geology Review, v. 36, pp. 105-151. 1994.
Grieve, R. A. F., The record of impact on Earth: Implications for a major Cretaceous/Tertiary impact event. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, pp. 25-37. 1982.
Gurov, E. P., Gurova, E. P., Impact structures on the Earth's surface (in Russian). Geologicheskii Zhurnal, v. 47, pp. 117-124. 1987.
Huber, K., Fuchs, K., Palmer, J., Roth, F., Khakhaev, B.N., Van-Kin, L.E., Pevzner, L.A., Hickman, S., Moos, D., Zoback, M.D. and Schmitt,D., Analysis of borehole televiewer measurements in the Vorotilov drillhole, Russia - first results. Tectonophysics, v. 275, pp. 261-272. 1997.
Ivanov, B. A., Geomechanical models of impact cratering: Puchezh-Katunki structure (abstract). International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, pp. 40-41. 1992.
Ivanov, B. A., Geomechanical models of impact cratering: Puchezh-Katunki structure. Geological Society of America Special Paper 293, pp. 81-91. 1994.
Ivanov, B. A., Kocharyan, G.G., Kostuchenko, V.N., Kirjakov, A.F. and Pevzner,L.A., Puchezh-Katunki impact crater: Preliminary data on recovered core block structure (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science, v. XXVII, pp. 589-598. 1996.
Ivanov, B. A., Kocharyan, G.G., Kostuchenko, V.N., Kirjakov, A.F. and Pevzner,L.A., Puchezh-Katunki impact crater: Preliminary data on recovered core block structure (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 30, pp. 524-525. 1995.
Ivanov, B.A., Spread of ejecta from impact craters and the possibility of estimating the volatile content of the martian crust, Solar System Research, v. 30, pp. 36-50, 1996
Koeberl, C., Masaitis, V.L., Langenhorst, F., Stöffler, D., Schrauder, M., Lengauer, C., Gilmour, I. and Hough,R.M., Diamonds from the Popigai impact structure, Russia (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXVI, pp. 777-778. 1995.
Koeberl, C., Milkereit, B., Continental Drilling and the Study of Impact Craters and Processes - an ICDP Perspective, In: Continental Scientific Drilling (eds. Harms, U., Koeberl, C., and Zoback, M.D.), Springer, Heidelberg, p. 95-161. 2007.
Kotelnikov, S., Feldman, V. and Juk,A., Shock Metamorpohism of naturally and experimentally deformed clinopyroxene (abstract). Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium 22, pp. 39-40. 1995.
Kremenetsky, A. A., Models and cross-sections of the Earth's crust based on superdeep drilling data of the USSR. Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Crystal Chemistry of Rare Elements, (Imagre) 100-111. 1991.
Kremenstsky A.A., Yushko, N. A., Deep anatomy, composition, and evolution of large meteorite impacts: Scientific drilling data on the Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme, Russia (abstract). Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution,. 1997.
Krivtsov, A. I.,ed., Models and cross-sections fo the Earth's crust based on super-deep drilling data of the USSR. Compiled by A.A. Kremenetsky. Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Crystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMGRE), 164 p. 1991.
Masaitis, V. L., Astroblemes in the USSR. International Geology Review, v. 18, pp. 1249-1258. 1975.
Masaitis, V. L., Danilin, A.N., Maschak, M.S., Raykhlin, A.I., Selivanovskaya, T.V. and Shadenkov,Ye.M., The Geology of Astroblemes (in Russian). Leningrad, Nedra, 231 p. 1980.
Masaitis, V. L., Diamantiferous impactites, their distribution and petrogenesis (in Russian). Regional Geology and Metallogeny, v. 1, pp. 121-134. 1993.
Masaitis, V. L., Diamond-bearing impactites and problems of their development. Mineral Resources of Russia: Diamonds and Gold. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium, Mineral Resources of Russia, pp. 41-43. 1995.
Masaitis, V. L., Maschak, M.S., Naumov, M.V. and Raikhlin,A.I., The Puchezh-Katunki Impact Structure. Large Astroblemes of Russia, pp. 30-33. 1994.
Masaitis, V. L., Mashchak, M. S., Impact transfromations in deep-seated zones of the Puchezh-Katunki crater (abstract). Second International Conference. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Imapcts. 1994.
Masaitis, V. L., Mashchak, M. S., Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme: Structure of central uplift and transformation of composing rocks (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 25, p. 383. 1990.
Masaitis, V. L., Mashchak, M.S. and Naumov,M.V., The Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme: A model of the structure of a giant impact crater (in Russian). Astronomicheskii vestnik, v. 30, pp. 5-13. 1996.
Masaitis, V. L., Mashchak, M.S., Naumov, M.V., Orlova, Zh. V. and Selivanovskaya,T.V., The Puchezh-Katun impact carter and its main structural features (in Russian). Doklady Akademii nauk, v. 342, pp. 358-360. 1995.
Masaitis, V. L., Naumov, M. V., Puchezh-Katunki impact crater: Preliminary model of hydrothermal circulation system (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 28, pp. 390-391. 1993.
Masaitis, V. L., The deep structure of impact craters (in Russian). Razvedka i okhrana nedr, v. 8, pp. 10-13. 1991.
Masaitis, V. L., The geology of astroblemes in the USSR; Mesozoic astroblemes: The Puchezh-Katunskaya astrobleme (in Russian). In:Masaitis, V.L., Danilin, A.N., Mashchak, M.S., Rayklin, A.I., Selvanovskaya, T.V. & Shodenkov, Y.M., eds., The Geology of Astroblemes, Izd. Nedra, pp. 59-69. 1980.
Masaitis, V. L., The morphology and sub-surface structure of terrestrial meteorite craters and astroblemes (in Russian). Pis'ma v Astronomichesky Zhurnal, v. 3, pp. 36-40. 1979.
Masaitis, V.L., Impact structures of northeastern Eurasia: The territories of Russia and adjacent countries, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 34, pp. 691-711, 1999
Naumov, M. V., Zeolitizaton of impactites and breccia in Puchezh-Katunki Astrobleme (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXIII, pp. 976-977. 1992.
Naumov, M. V., Zonation of hydrothermal alteration in the central uplift of the Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 28, pp. 408-409. 1993.
Naumov, M.V., Impact-generated heydrothermal systems; data from Popigai, Kara, and Puchezh-Katunki impact structures, 4th IMPACT programme workshop on Meteorite impacts in Precambrian shields, pp. 117-171, 2000. 
Pevzner, L. A., Kirjakov, A F., Vorontsov, A K., Masaitis, V L., Mashchak, M S. and Ivanov,B A., Vorotilovskaya drillhole: First deep drilling in the central uplift of a large terrestrial impact crater (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science, v. XXIII, pp. 1063-1064. 1992.
Popov, Y., Mayr, S., Romushkevich, R., Burkhardt, H., Wilhelm, H., Comparison of petrophysical properties of impactites for four meteoritic impact structures. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol. 49, pp. 896-920. 2014.
Popov, Y. A., Pimenov, V.P., Pevzner, L.A., Romushkevich, R.A., Popov,E.Y., Geothermal Characteristics of the Vorotilovo Deep Borehole Drilled into the Puchezh-Katunk Impact Structure, Tectonophysics v. 291, pp. 205-223. 1998.
Sazonova, L. V., Fel'dman, V. and Korotaeva,N., Preliminary estimation of tagamite cooling conditions (Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme, Russia) (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV, pp. 1239-1240. 1993.
Sazonova, L. V., Feldman, V. and Korotaeva,N., Transformation conditions of plagioclase and dark-colour minerals from Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme rocks (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXVI, pp. 1225-1226. 1995.
Sazonova, L. V., Feldman, V., Garnet diaplectic transformation (Puchezh-Katunky astrobleme, Russia) (abstract). Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium 22, pp. 88-89. 1995.
Sazonova, L. V., Feldman, V., Plagiooclase diaplectic transformation (Puchezh-Katunky astrobleme, Russia) (abstract). Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium 22, pp. 90-91. 1995.
Sazonova, L. V., Nosova, A.A., Fel'dman, V.I., Lomonosow, M.V. and Veradsky,V.I., Diaplectic quartz from autogenous breccia of the Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme (USSR) (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XIII, pp. 681-682. 1982.
Schmieder, M., Buchner, E., Dating impact craters: Palaeogeographic versus isotopic and stratigraphic methods - A brief case study, Geological Magazine, v. 145, pp. 586-590, 2008
Thompson, L. M., Spray, J. G., Whitehead, J., Anonymous, Re-assessment of large terrestrial impact structures; rim and maximum damage diameters (abstract). 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, abstract no. 2712. 2010. 
Zaychenko, V. Yu., Kuznetsov, O.L. and Popsuy Shapko,G.P., Nature of ring-shaped photo-anomalies identified by remote surveys (in Russian). Sovetskaya Geologiya, v. 1, pp. 98-106. 1981.
Zotkin, I. T., "Moon" craters on the Earth (in Russian). Priroda, v. 9, pp. 95-105. 1969.
Zotkin, I. T., Tsvetkov, V. I., Searches for meteorite craters on the Earth (in Russian). Astronomicheskii Vestnik, v. 4, pp. 55-56. 1970.


* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite)

****This revised diameter is the best estimate for the collapsed transient crater diameter (rim-to-rim dimension). Our previous diameters cited maximum damage diameter estimates. There is considerable confusion in the literature regarding the definition of "diameter". In the Earth Impact Database, we are striving to cite the collapsed transient crater value where possible. This can affect the order of size: for example, Sudbury's maximum damage diameter is ~260 km (as defined by the outermost ring diameter), while that of Chicxulub is ~240 km. However, the rim-to-rim diameter of Sudbury is less than that of Chicxulub's (130 versus 150 km, respectively).



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