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Earth Impact Database Sorted by : | Name | Diameter | Age |



Crater Name
Diameter (km)
Age (Ma)*
Target Rock**
Bolide Type***
N 19° 58'
E 76° 31'
0.052 ± 0.006


Photo taken by Henry Hall in 1979

Ground panorama submitted by Tiku Ravat,
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

Image submitted by Mahesh Chengalva

Ground view



Agarwal, A., Kontny, A., Srivastava, D.C., Greiling, R.O., Shock pressure estimates in target basalts of a pristine crater; a case study in the Lonar Crater, India. Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.128, pp.19-28. 2016. 
Balasundaram, M. S., Lonar Crater, India. International Geological Congress, 24th, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1-4. 1972.
Basilevsky, A. T., Fel'dman, V.I., Kapustkina, I.G. and Kolesov,G.M., On the distribution of iridium in the rocks of terrestrial impact craters (in Russian). Geokhimiya, v. 6, pp. 781-790. 1984.
Bender Koch, C., Ferrow, E. A., Impact related changes in mineral properties: Ti-magnetite from basaltic rocks at Lonar Crater, India, Hyperfine Interact, 166, P. 505 - 509. 2005.
Chakrabarti, R., Basu, A. R., Trace element and isotopic evidence for Archean basement in the Lonar Crater impact breccia, Deccan Volcanic Province, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 247, P. 197 - 211. 2006.
Chatterjee, S., A possible K/T impact site at the India-Seychelles boundary (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XXI, pp. 182-183. 1990.
Chowdhury, A. N., Handa, B. K., Some aspects of the geochemistry of Lonar Lake water. Indian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 5, pp. 111-118. 1978.
Cisowski, C. S., Dunn, J.R., Fuller, M., Rose, M.F. and Wasilewski,P.J., Impact processes and lunar magnetism. Proceedings Lunar Science Conference 5th, pp. 2841-2858. 1974.
Cisowski, S. M., Fuller, M., Magnetic effects of shock waves on natural materials (abstract). EOS, v. 58, p. 727. 1977.
Cockell, C. S., Lee, P., The Biology of Impact Craters - a review. Biol. Rev., 77, P. 279 - 310. 2002.
Craig, M.A., Osinski, G.R., Flemming, R.L., Cloutis, E.A., Horgan, B., et al, Near-infrared spectra of glassy impactites from terrestial impact structures (abstract). 45th Lunar and Plnetary Science Conference, abstract no 2417. 2014. 
Deshmukh, S. K., Verekar, S. A., Keratinophilic fungi from the vicinity of meteorite crater soils of Lonar (India), Mycopathologia, Vol. 162, P. 303 - 306. 2006.
Fel'dman, V. I., Mironov, Yu.V., Melikhov, B.A., Ivanov, B.A. and Basilevsky,A.T., Astroblemes on trap rock: Structural features and differences from impact structures on other targets (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 44, pp. 139-145. 1985.
Fel'dman, V. I., Rare-Earth elements in astrobleme impactites. Geochemistry International, v. 32, pp. 24-48. 1995.
Fredericksson, K., Noonan, A. and Nelen,J., Meteoritic, lunar and Lonar impact chondrules. The Moon, v. 7, pp. 475-482. 1973.
Fredriksson, K., Brenner, P., Dube, A., Milton, D., Mooring, C. and Nelen,J.A., Petrology, mineralogy, and distribution of Lonar (India) and lunar impact breccias and glasses. Smithsonian Contributions to Earth Sciences, v. 22, pp. 1-12. 1979.
Fredriksson, K., Brenner, P., Nelen, J., Noonan, A., Dube, A. and Reid,A., Comparative studies of impact glasses and breccias (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science V, pp. 245-247. 1974.
Fredriksson, K., Dube, A., Milton, D.J. and Balasundaram,M.S., Lonar Lake, India: An impact crater in basalt. Science, v. 180, pp. 862-864. 1973.
Fredriksson, K., Nelen, J. and Noonan,A., Lunar, terrestrial and meteoritic impact breccias (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science IV, pp. 263-265. 1973.
Fudali, R. F., Milton, D.J., Fredriksson, K. and Dube,A., Morphology of Lonar crater, India: Comparisons and implications. The Moon and the Planets, v. 23, pp. 439-515. 1980.
Garvin, J. B., Grieve, R.A.F. and Schnetzler,C.C., Satellite remote sensing signatures of impact structures (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 30, pp. 509. 1995.
Grieve, R. A. F., Masaitis, V. L., The economic potential of terrestrial impact craters. International Geology Review, v. 36, pp. 105-151. 1994.
Grieve, R. A. F., The record of impact on Earth: Implications for a major Cretaceous/Tertiary impact event. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, pp. 25-37. 1982.
Gurov, E. P., Gurova, E. P., Impact structures on the Earth's surface (in Russian). Geologicheskii Zhurnal, v. 47, pp. 117-124. 1987.
Hagerty, J. J., Newsom, H. E., New evidence for impact-induced hydrothermal alteration at the Lonar crater, India: implications for the effect of small craters on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the Martian regolith, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII. 2001.
Hagerty, J. J., Newsom, H. E., New evidence for impact-induced hydrothermal alteration at the Lonar Crater, India: Implications for the effect of small craters on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the martian regolith, Lunar and Planetary Science 32, Abs. No. 1131. 2001.
Hawkes, H. E., Geochemical evidence on the origin of the Lonar crater, Maharashtra, India: Discussion. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 78, pp. 1199-1200. 1967.
Hörz, F., Ostertag, R and Rainey,D A., Bunte breccia of the Ries: Continuous deposits of large impact craters. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, v. 21, pp. 1667-1725. 1983.
Ivanov, B. A., Basilevsky, A. T., Meteorite craters (in Russian). Priroda, v. 10, pp. 23-35. 1985.
Jourdan, F., Moynier, F. and Koeberl, C., First 40Ar/39Ar Age of the Lonar Crater: A ~0.65Ma Impact Event? Lunar and Planetary Science XXXXI, abstract #1661. 2010.
Keiffer, S. W., Schaal, R.B., Gibbons, R.V., Horz, F., Milton, D.J. and Dube,A., Shocked basalt from Lonar impact crater, India, and experimental analogues (abstract). EOS, 56, pp. 1017. 1976.
Keiffer, S. W., Schaal, R.B., Gibbons, R.V., Horz, F., Milton, D.J. and Dube,A., Shocked basalt from Lonar impact crater, India, and experimental analogues. Proceedings Lunar Science Conference 7th, pp. 1391-1412. 1976.
Kieffer, S. W., Schaal, R B., Gibbons, R V., Hörz, F, Milton, D J. and Dube,A., Shocked basalt from Lonar impact crater, India, and experimental analogues. Proceedings Lunar Science Conference 7th, pp. 1391-1412. 1976.
Koeberl, C., Bahandari, N. Dhingra, D. Suresh, P.O., Narasimham, V.L., Misra,S., Lonar Impact Crater, India: Occurrence of Basaltic Suevite, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV. 2004.
Kohman, T. P., Sahasrabudhe, P. W., Impact origin of Lonar Lake crater, India (abstract). 27th Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. 1964.
Kumar, P. S., Structural effects of meteorite impact on basalt: Evidence from Lonar crater, India. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110. 2005.
Lafond, E. C., Dietz, R. S., Lonar crater, India, a meteorite crater? Meteoritics, v. 2, pp. 111-116. 1964.
Louzada, K.L., Weiss, B.P., Maloof, A.C., Stewart, S.T., Swanson-Hysell, N. and Soule, S.A. Paleomagnetism of Lonar Crater, India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 275, pp. 308-319. 2008. 
Maloof, A.C., Stewart, S.T., Weiss, B.P., Soule, S.A., Swanson-Hysell, N., Louzada, K.L., Garrick-Bethell, I. and Poussart, P.M. Geology of Lonar Crater, India. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 122, pp. 109-126. 2010.
Masaitis, V. L., Danilin, A.N., Maschak, M.S., Raykhlin, A.I., Selivanovskaya, T.V. and Shadenkov,Ye.M., The Geology of Astroblemes (in Russian). Leningrad, Nedra, 231 p. 1980.
Master, S., Evidence for an Impact Origin of the Ambar Lake Structure: A Smaller Companion Crater to the Lonar Impact Crater, Maharahshtra, India, Meteoritics; vol. 34, No. 4, Supp. p. A78. 1999.
McHone J F., Dietz, R. S., Earth's multiple impact craters and astroblemes (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science, v. XXIII, pp. 887-888. 1992.
Milton, D. J., Dube, A. and Sen Gupta,S.S., Deposition of ejecta at Lonar crater. Meteoritics, v. 10, pp. 456-457. 1975.
Milton, D. J., Dube, A., Ejecta at Lonar crater, India (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 12, pp. 311. 1977.
Misra, S., Arif, M., Basavaiah, N., Srivastava, P.K., Dube, A., Structural and anisotropy of magnetic suseptibility (AMS) evidence for oblique impact on terrestial basalt flors; Lonar Crater, India. Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol.122, pp.563-574. 2010. 
Morgan, J. W., Lonar crater glasses and high-magnesium australites: Trace element volatization and meteoritic contamination. Proceedings Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 9th, pp. 2713-2730. 1978.
Moynier, F., Jourdan, F., Yin, Q., Beck, P., Koerberl, C. and Reimold, U., Isotopic fractionation of Zn during impact on Earth, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIX, abstract #1426. 2008.
Murali, A. V., Zolensky, M.E. and Blanchard,D.P., Tektite-like bodies at Lonar crater, India: Implications for the origin of tektites. Journal of Geophysical Research, Supplement B4, v. 92, pp. E729-E735. 1987.
Nakamura, A., Yokoyama, Y., Sekine, Y., Goto, K., Komatsu, G., et al, Formation age and geomorphologic history of the Lonar impact crater deduced from in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al (abstract). American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2013, abstract P34C-03. 2013. 
Nayak, V. K., Glassy objects (impactite glasses ?) A possible new evidence for meteoritic origin of the Lonar crater, Maharashtra State, India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 14, pp. 1-6. 1972.
Nayak, V. K., Maskelynite from the Indian impact crater at Lonar. Journal Geological Society of India, v. 41, pp. 307-312. 1993.
Nayak, V. R., A history of the Lonar crater, India - an overview (abstract). International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, LPI Contribution No. 790, pp. 53-54. 1992.
Newsom, H. E., Nelson, M.J., Shearer, C.K., Rietmeijer, F.J.M, Gakin, R., Lee,K., Major and Trace element variations in the Impact Crater clays from Chicxulub, Lonar and Mistastin, Implications for the Martian soil, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV. 2004.
Newsom, H.E. and Boslough, M.B.E., Impact melt formation by low-altitude airburst processes, evidence from small terrestrial craters and numerical modeling, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIX, abstract #1460. 2008. 
Osae, S., Misra, S. , Koeberl, C. , Sengupta, D. and Ghosh, S., Target rocks, impact glasses, and melt rocks from the Lonar impact crater, India: Petrography and geochemistry, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40, Nr 9/10, P. 1473 - 1492. 2005.
Parfenova O V., Yakovlev, O. I., Some peculiarities of selective evaporation in target rocks after meteoritic impact. Impact and Explosion Cratering, D. J. Roddy, R. O. Pepin and R. B. Merrill, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 843-859. 1977.
Pike, R. J., Craters on Earth, moon and mars: Multivariate classification and mode of origin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 22, pp. 245-255. 1975.
Poornachandra Rao G.V.S., Bhalla, M. S., Lonar Lake: Palaeomagnetic evidence of shock origin. Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., v. 77, pp. 847-862. 1984.
Poornachandra Rao G.V.S., Bhalla, M. S., On the seperation of shock component at Lonar impact crater, India - a study of multicomponent NRM (abstract). Symposium Fennoscandian Impact Structures, p. 28. 1990.
Ryabenko, V. A., Val'ter, A. A., Meteorite explosion craters as an object of study in modern geology (in Russian). Visnyk, v. 1-6, pp. 7-16. 1977.
Schaal, R. B., Gibbons, R.V. and Kieffer,S.W., Basaltic impact melts (abstract). EOS, v. 56, pp. 1016. 1975.
Schaal, R. B., Hörz, F., Shock metamorphism of lunar and terrestrial basalts. Proceedings Lunar Science Conference 8th, pp. 1697-1729. 1977.
Schaal, R. B., Shock metamorphism in basalt from Lonar Crater, India and in six lunar microcraters. M.S. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, California. 1976.
Schulz, T., Luguet, A., Koeberl, C., Anonymous, Search for a meteoritic component in impact-melt rocks from the Lonar crater, Indial evidence from the osmium isotope systematics (abstract). American Geophysical Union fall Meeting 2013, abstract P41F-1993. 2013. 
Sengupta, D., Bhandari, N., Formation age of the Lonar crater (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science XIX, pp. 1059-1060. 1988.
Sengupta, D., Bhauderi, N., Formation age on Lonar impact crater. Unpublished report, 33 p. 1989.
Son, T. H., Koeberl, C., Chemical variation in Lonar impact glasses and impactites, GFF Vol. 129, P.161 - 176. 2007.
Strobe, W. B. Jr., Garg, A.N., Ali, M.Z. and Ehmann,W.D., A chemical study of the impact glasses and basalts from Lonar crater, India. Meteoritics, v. 13, pp. 201-208. 1978.
Stroube, W. B., Garg, A N., Ali, M Z. and Ehmann,W D., A chemical study of the impact glasses and basalts from Lonar crater, India. Meteoritics, v. 13, pp. 201-208. 1978.
Taiwade, V. S., A study of Lonar lake - a meteorite-impact crater in basalt rock. Bull. Ast. Soc. India, v. 23, pp. 105-111. 1995.
Venkatesh, V., The Lonar crater--some geochemical data. Journal Geological Society, India, v. 8, pp. 19-37. 1967.
Wani, A. A., Surakasi, V. P. , Siddharth, J. , Raghavan, R. G. , Patole, M. S. , Ranade, D. and Shouche, Y. S., Molecular analyses of microbial diversity associated with the Lonar soda lake in India: An impact crater in a basalt area. Research in Microbiology, 157, P. 928 - 937. 2006.
Yakovlev, O. I., Parfenova, O. V., Petrochemical features of impactites and the significance of evaporation and condensation processes in impact crater formation (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 40, pp. 113-121. 1982.


* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite)



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