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Earth Impact Database Sorted by : | Name | Diameter | Age |

 

Crater Name
Location
Latitude
Longitude
Diameter (km)
Age (Ma)*
Exposed
Drilled
Target Rock**
Bolide Type***
Kärdla
Estonia
N 59° 1'
E 22° 46'
4****
~ 455
N
Y
M
-

Kärdla

****NOTE: The diameter for Kärdla is currently under review

References
Bauert, Kh A., Myannil', R.M. and Suuroya,K.A., Time of formation of Kyardla crater (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 48-49. 1987.
Dabizha, A. I., Fel'dman, V. I., The geophysical properties of some astroblemes in the USSR (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 40, pp. 91-101. 1982.
Grahn, Y., Nolvak, J and Paris,F., Precise chitinozoan dating of Ordovician impact events in Baltoscandia, Journal of Micropalaeontology, v.15, p.21-35. 1996.
Grahn, Y., Nolvak, J., Chitinozoan dating of Ordovician impact events in Sweden and Estonia. A preliminary note. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlingar, v. 115, pp. 263-264. 1993.
Grieve, R. A. F., Robertson, P. B., The terrestrial cratering record. 1. Current status of observations. Icarus, v. 38, pp. 212-229. 1979.
Grieve, R. A. F., The record of impact on Earth: Implications for a major Cretaceous/Tertiary impact event. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, pp. 25-37. 1982.
Gurov, E. P., Gurova, E. P., Impact structures on the Earth's surface (in Russian). Geologicheskii Zhurnal, v. 47, pp. 117-124. 1987.
Henkel, H., Pesonen, L. J., Impact craters and craterform structures in Fennoscandia. Tectonophysics, v. 216, pp. 31-40. 1992.
Joeleht, A., and Plado, J. Architecture of the notheastern rim of the Kardla impact crater, Estonia, based on ground penetating radar studies. Special Paper- Geological society of America, vol.465, pp.133. 2010.
Joeleht, A., Kirsimae, K., Plado, J., Versh, E., Ivanov,B., Cooling of the Kardla impact crater: II. Impact and geothermal modeling, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 40 , n. 1 , p. 21-34. 2005.
Joeleht, A., Plado, J., Cooling of the Kardla impact crater: I. The mineral parasequence observations, Workshop on Impact Cratering. 2003.
Kirsimae, K., Puura, V., Karki, A., Kirs, J., Suujora, K., Polikarpus,M., Hornblende Alteration in Impact-Influenced Basement Rocks at the Kardla Impact Crater, Estonia, Meteoritics; vol. 34, No. 4, Supp. p. A64. 1999.
Kirsimae, Kalle., Suuroja, S., Kirs, J., Karki, A., Polikarpus, M., Puura, V., Suuroja,K., Hornblende alteration and fluid inclusions in Kardla impact crater, Estonia: Evidence for impact-induced hydrothermal activity, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 37, 449-457 (2002). 2002.
Lindström, M., Ormö, J., Sturkell, E.F.F. and Törnberg,R., Geological information from Ordovician marine impact craters (abstract). GFF, v. 118, pp. A99-A100. 1996.
Masaitis, V. L., Danilin, A.N., Maschak, M.S., Raykhlin, A.I., Selivanovskaya, T.V. and Shadenkov,Ye.M., The Geology of Astroblemes (in Russian). Leningrad, Nedra, 231 p. 1980.
Ormo, J., Lindstrom, M., When a cosmic impact strikes the sea bed, Geol. Mag. V.137(1), p.67-80. 2000.
Ormo, J., Next step in marine impact studies: combining geological data with numerical simulations for applications in planetary research, Workshop on Impact Cratering. 2003.
Pirrus, E. A., Tiimaa, R. T., Meteorite craters of Estonia (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 3-4. 1987.
Plado, J. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol.47, pp.1590. 2012.
Plado, J., Pesonen, L.J., Elo, S., Purra, V. and Suuroja,K., Geophysical research on the Kardla impact structure, Hiiumaa Island, Estonia. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, pp. 289-298. 1996.
Plado, J., Pesonen, L.J., Elo, S., Puura, V. and Suuroja,K., Geophysical research into the Kärdla meteorite crater, Hiiumaa, Estonia (abstract). Second International Conference. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Impacts. 1994.
Puura, V. A., Kala, E.A. and Suuroja,K.A., The structure of the Kardla astrobleme (island of Hiiuma, Northwestern Estonia) (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 48, pp. 150-161. 1989.
Puura, V. A., Kirs, J., Plado, J., Suuroja, K. and Suuroja,S., Shocked rocks of the Kardla crater: Divergency in chemistry, mineralogy, fluid inclusions and petrophysical properties (abstract). European Science Foundation, Third International Workshop. Shock Wave Behaviour of Solids in Nature and Experiments, Limoges, France. 1994.
Puura, V. A., Kirsimäe, K., Kivisilla, I., Plado, J., Puura, I. and Suuoja,K., Geochemical anomalies of terrestrial compounds in nonmelted impactites at Kärdla, Estonia (abstract). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, p. A5. 1996.
Puura, V. A., Plado, J., Kirsimae, K., Kivisilla, J., Kleesment, A. and Niin,M., Geological, geochemical, mineralogical, geophysical, and petrophysical studies for structural modeling of the Kärdla crater, Estonia (abstract). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, p. A113. 1996.
Puura, V. A., Suuroja, K., Middle Ordovician astrobleme at Kardla, Hiiumaa Island, West Estonian Archipelago (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 27, pp. 279. 1992.
Puura, V. A., Suuroja, K., Ordovician impact crater at Kardla, Hiiumaa Island, Estonia. Tectonophysics, v. 216, pp. 143-156. 1992.
Puura, V. A., Suuroja, K., Ordovician impact crater at Kardla, island of Hiiumaa, Estonia (abstract). Pesonen, L.J. and Niemisara, H., eds., Symposium Fennoscandian Impact Structures, p. 30. 1990.
Puura, V. A., Suuroja, K., Ordovician marine impact at Kardla (NW Estonia) (abstract). Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth, First International Workshop, Nordlingen, Germany. 1993.
Puura, V. A., Suuroya, K. A., Structure of Kyardla buried astrobleme (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteortie Conference, Tallinn, pp. 49-50. 1987.
Puura, V., Karki, A., Kirs, J., Kirsimae, K., Kleesment, A., Konsa, M., Niin, M., Plado, J., Suuroja, K., Suuroja,S., Impact-Induced Replacement of Plagioclase by K-feldspar in Granitoids and Amphibolites at the Kardla Crater, Estonia, (Gilmour I. and Koeberl C. eds) Impacts and the early Earth, Lecture notes in Earth Sciences, 91, pp. 417. 2000.
Puura, V., Karki, A., Kirs, J., Kirsimae, K., Suuroja, K., Suuroja,S., Orthoclase-Enriched Granitoids Beneath the Kardla Crater, Estonia, Meteoritics; vol. 34, No. 4, Supp. p. A95. 1999.
Sundblad, K., Lead isotopic composition of galena associated with the Early Palaeozoic meteorite impact structures at Lockne (Sweden) and Kardla (Estonia) (abstract). European Science Foundation, Second International Conference. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Impacts.,. 1994.
Sundblad, K., Lead isotopic composition of glaena associated with the Early Palaeozoic meleorite imapct structures at Lockne (Sweden) and Kärdla (Estonia) (abstract). Second International Conference. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Impacts. 1994.
Suuroja, K., Post-impact history of the Kärdla crater (abstract). Second International Workshop. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Impacts. 1994.
Suuroja, S., Surroja, K.,and  Floden, T. Features of the dislocation zone of complex impact structures; marine impact structures Neugrund and Kardla (Baltic Sea, Estonia). 2002.
Törnberg, R., Impact-related resurge sedimentology as exemplified by the Lockne, Tvären and Kärdla structures (abstract). GFF, v. 118, p. A102. 1996.
Versh, E., Kirsimae, K., Joeleht, A., Plado,J., Cooling of the Kardla impact crater: I. The mineral paragenetic sequence observation, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 40 , n. 1 , p. 3-21. 2005.

 

* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

***
From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite)

 

 

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