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Earth Impact Database Sorted by : | Age | Diameter | Name |



Crater Name
Diameter (km)
Age (Ma)*
Target Rock**
Bolide Type***
N 58° 24'
E 22° 40'
0.004 ± 0.001


Kaalijarv crater

Panoramic View from crater rim facing west (Image Credit: Siim Veski 2008).


Aaloe, A. O., Dabizha, A.I., Karnaukh, B. and Starobdubtsev,V., Geophysical investigations on the main Kaali crater (in Russian). Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Estonskoi SSR, Khimiya-Geologiya, v. 25, pp. 58-65. 1976.
Aaloe, A. O., On the history of the study of the Kaali meteorite crater (in Russian). Akademiy Nauk Estonskoy SSR, Insitut Geologii Trudy, pp. 25-34. 1963.
Aaloe, A. O., Tiirmaa, R. T., Meteoritic matter in and around the small craters of Kaalijarvi (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 41, pp. 120-125. 1982.
Alksnis, A., Meteorite craters on Saaremaa Island (in Latvian). Zvaigznota Debess, Riga, Latvia, pp. 4-11. 1961.
Blomqvist, J., The fall of Phaethon and the Kaalijärv meteorite crater: is there a connection? Eranos. Acta philologica Suecana 92: 1-16. 1994.
Blomqvist, J., Wickman, F. E., Myten och verkligheten: Störtade Faethon på Ösel? Medusa 15: 32-39. 1994.
Bronshten, V. A., Impact and explosion meteorite craters on the Earth and moon (in Russian). Astronomicheskii Vestnik, v. 11, pp. 78-83. 1977.
Dabizha, A. I., A new interpretation of the structure of meteorite craters (in Russian). Astronomicheskii Vestnik, v. 11, pp. 73-77. 1977.
Dabizha, A. I., Anuchin, M.S., Fedynsky, V.V. and Melikhov,V.R., Circular structures of the central part of the Russian platform (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 34, pp. 88-91. 1975.
Dabizha, A. I., Fedynsky, V. V., The Earth's "star wounds" and their diagnosis by geophysical methods (in Russian). "Zemlya i Vselennaya", v. 3, pp. 56-64. 1975.
Dabizha, A. I., Ivanov, B. A., A geophysical model of the structure of meteorite craters and some problems of the mechanics of crater formation (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 37, pp. 160-167. 1978.
Fisher, C., The Estonian meteor craters. American Astronomical Society Publications, v. 9, pp. 120-121. 1938.
Grieve, R. A. F., The record of impact on Earth: Implications for a major Cretaceous/Tertiary impact event. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, pp. 25-37. 1982.
Gurov, E. P., Gurova, E. P., A group of young meteorite craters in the marginal northwestern part of the Aldan Anteclise (in Russian). Doklady Akademii Nauk Ukrainskoi SSR, Seriya "B", v. 2, pp. 9-12. 1984.
Gurov, E. P., Gurova, E. P., Impact structures on the Earth's surface (in Russian). Geologicheskii Zhurnal, v. 47, pp. 117-124. 1987.
Jaakkola, T., The Kaali giant meteorite fall in the Finnish-Estonian folklore. In: Hänni U, Tuominen I (eds) Proc. 6th Soviet-Finnish Astronomical Symp. Tartu Astrofüüs. Obs. Teated 92., Tallinn, 10-16 Nov. 1986, pp 203-216. 1988.
Khryanina, L. P., Ivanov, O. P., Structure of meteorite craters and astroblemes (in Russian). Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, v. 233, pp. 457-460. 1977.
Koval, V. I., The velocity of the Kaali meteorite (in Russian). Astronomicheskii Vestnik, v. 10, pp. 57-60. 1976.
Kraus, E., Meyer. R, Wegener,A., Untersuchungen über den Krater von Sall auf Ösel. Kurlands Beiträge zur Geophysik 20: 312-378. 1928.
Krinov, E. L., Giant Meteorites. Pergamon Press, New York, 397. 1966.
Krinov, E. L., Meteorite craters on the Earth's surface. Middlehurst, B.M. and Kuiper, G.P., eds., The Moon, Meteorites and Comets, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, v. IV, pp. 183-207. 1966.
Krinov, E. L., Meteorite craters on the surface of the Earth. Beynon, M.M., ed., Giant Meteorites, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 1-77. 1963.
Krinov, E. L., News about meteorite craters. Zemlja i vselennaja, v. 5, pp. 59-67. 1966.
Krinov, E. L., The Kaalijarv meteorite craters on Saarema Island, Estonian SSR. American Journal of Science, v. 259, pp. 430-440. 1961.
Linstow, O., Der Krater von Sall auf Oesel. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläntologie 21/22: 326–329. 1919.
Lyakhovitskiy, F. M., Guklengov, M. N., Seismic prospecting in Kaali meteor craters: Results and prospects (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 46-47. 1987.
Marini, F., Raukas, A., Tiirmaa., Magnetic fines from the Kaali impact-site (Holocene, Estonia): Preliminary SEM investigation. Geochemical Journal 38: 107-120. 2004.
Masaitis, V. L., Danilin, A.N., Maschak, M.S., Raykhlin, A.I., Selivanovskaya, T.V. and Shadenkov,Ye.M., The Geology of Astroblemes (in Russian). Leningrad, Nedra, 231 p. 1980.
Masaitis, V. L., Mashchak, M. S., Bilateral symmetry of circular impact structures of astroblemes (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 41, pp. 150-156. 1982.
Masaitis, V. L., Mashchak, M.S., Raikhlin, A.I., Selivanovskaya, T.V., & Danilin,A., Meteorite craters and astroblemes in the USSR (in Russian). Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, v. 240, pp. 1191-1193. 1978.
McHone J F., Dietz, R. S., Earth's multiple impact craters and astroblemes (abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science, v. XXIII, pp. 887-888. 1992.
Pirrus, E. A., Tiimaa, R. T., Meteorite craters of Estonia (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 3-4. 1987.
Pirrus, E. A., Tiirmaa, R. T., The meteorite craters in Estonia (abstract). Pesonen, L.J. and Niemisara, H., eds., Symposium Fennoscandian Impact Structures, pp. 51-52. 1990.
Pobul, E., The application of geophysical methods to the study of meteorite craters in the Estonian SSR (in Russian). Akademii Nauk Estonskoy SSR, Institut Geologii Trudy, pp. 45-51. 1963.
Rasmussen, K. L., Aaby, B., Gwozdz., The age of the Kaalijärv meteorite craters. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35: 1067-1071. 2000.
Raukas, A., Distribution and composition of impact and extraterrestrial spherules in the Kaali area (Island of Saaremaa, Estonia). Geochemical Journal 38: 101-106. 2004.
Raukas, A., Pirrus, R., Rajamäe, R., Tiirmaa,R., On the age of the meteorite craters at Kaali (Saaremaa Island, Estonia). Proceedings of Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology 44: 177-183. 1995.
Reinwaldt, I., Bericht über geologische Untersuchungen am Kaalijärv (Krater von Sall) auf Ösel. Loodusuurijate seltsi aruanded 35: 30–70. 1928.
Reinwaldt, I., Kaali järv – the meteorite craters on the Island of Ösel (Estonia). Loodusuurijate Seltsi Aruanded 39: 183–202. 1933.
Reinwaldt, I., The finding of meteorite iron in Estonian craters. A long search richly rewarded. The Sky Magazine of Cosmic News 2: 28–29. 1938.
Saarse, L., Rajama, R., Heinsalu, A. and Vassiljev,J., Formation of the meteor crater Lake Kaali (Island Saaremaa, Estonia) (abstract). Pesonen, L.J. and Niemisara, H., eds., Symposium Fennoscandian Impact Sturctures, p. 55. 1990.
Saarse, L., Rajama, R., Heinsalu, A. and Vassiljev,J., Formation of the meteor crater Lake Kaali (Island Saaremaa, Estonia) (abstract). Symposium Fennoscandian Impact Structures, p. 55. 1990.
Skrynnik, G. V., Meteorite craters on the Earth (in Russian). Astronomicheskii Vestnik, v. 11, pp. 198-210. 1977.
Smith, T., Hodge, P., Microscopic meteoritic material surrounding meteorite craters (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 28, pp. 439. 1993.
Tiirmaa, R. T., Area distribution of pulverized matter of Kaali meteorite (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 18-19. 1987.
Tiirmaa, R., Czegka, W., The Kaali-crater field at Saaremaa (Ösel), Estonia: Geological investigations since 1827 and future perspectives (abstract). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, pp. A142-A143. 1996.
Tiirmaa, R., Kaali craters of Estonia and their meteoritic material (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 27, pp. 297. 1992.
Tiirmaa, R., Raukas, A., Searching for extraterrestrial and explosion material around the Kaali craters (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) and the time of impact (abstract). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, p. A143. 1996.
Veski, S., Heinsalu, A., Kirsimäe, K., Poska, A., Saarse,L., Ecological catastrophe in connection with the impact of the Kaali Meteorite about 800-400 BC on the island of Saaremaa, Estonia. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 36: 1367-1376. 2001.
Veski, S., Heinsalu, A., Kirsimäe., Kaali meteoriidi vanus ja mõju looduskeskkonnale Saaremaa Piila raba turbaläbilõike uuringu põhjal. Eesti Arheoloogia ajakiri 6: 91-108. 2002.
Veski, S., Heinsalu, A., Lang, V., Kestlane, Ü., Possnert,G., The age of the Kaali meteorite craters and the effect of the impact on the environment and man: evidence from inside the Kaali craters, island of Saaremaa, Estonia. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 13: 197-206. 2004.
Veski, S., Heinsalu, A., Poska, A., Saarse, L., Vassiljev, J. 2007. The physical and social effects of the Kaali meteorite impact - a review. In: Bobrowsky, P.T. & Rickman, H., (eds), Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Springer, Berlin. 265-275.
Viyding, Kh A., Tiirmaa, R. T., History of geologic studies in Kaali crater field (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 2-6. 1987.
Zolotaya, L. A., Landa, T.I., Nechayeva, G.P. and Tiirmaa,R., Correlation of results of geophysical studies of Kaali meteorite crater group (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 45-46. 1987.
Zotkin, I. T., "Moon" craters on the Earth (in Russian). Priroda, v. 9, pp. 95-105. 1969.
Zotkin, I. T., Tsvetkov, V. I., Searches for meteorite craters on the Earth (in Russian). Astronomicheskii Vestnik, v. 4, pp. 55-56. 1970.


* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite)



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