manicouagan

Kärdla

 Crater Name  Location  Latitude  Longitude  Diameter (km)  Age (Ma)  Exposed  Drilled  Targed Rock**  Bolid Type***
 Kärdla  Estonia  N 59° 1'  E 22° 46'  4 (*)  ~ 455  N  Y  M  -

(*) NOTE: The diameter for Kärdla is currently under review

References

Bauert, Kh A., Myannil', R.M. and Suuroya,K.A., Time of formation of Kyardla crater (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 48-49. 1987.
Dabizha, A. I., Fel'dman, V. I., The geophysical properties of some astroblemes in the USSR (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 40, pp. 91-101. 1982.
Grahn, Y., Nolvak, J and Paris,F., Precise chitinozoan dating of Ordovician impact events in Baltoscandia, Journal of Micropalaeontology, v.15, p.21-35. 1996.
Grahn, Y., Nolvak, J., Chitinozoan dating of Ordovician impact events in Sweden and Estonia. A preliminary note. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlingar, v. 115, pp. 263-264. 1993.
Grieve, R. A. F., The record of impact on Earth: Implications for a major Cretaceous/Tertiary impact event. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, pp. 25-37. 1982.
Grieve, R. A. F., Robertson, P. B., The terrestrial cratering record. 1. Current status of observations. Icarus, v. 38, pp. 212-229. 1979.
Gurov, E. P., Gurova, E. P., Impact structures on the Earth's surface (in Russian). Geologicheskii Zhurnal, v. 47, pp. 117-124. 1987.
Henkel, H., Pesonen, L. J., Impact craters and craterform structures in Fennoscandia. Tectonophysics, v. 216, pp. 31-40. 1992.
Joeleht, A., Kirsimae, K., Plado, J., Versh, E., Ivanov,B., Cooling of the Kardla impact crater: II. Impact and geothermal modeling, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 40 , n. 1 , p. 21-34. 2005.
Joeleht, A., Plado, J., Cooling of the Kardla impact crater: I. The mineral parasequence observations, Workshop on Impact Cratering. 2003.
Kirsimae, K., Puura, V., Karki, A., Kirs, J., Suujora, K., Polikarpus,M., Hornblende Alteration in Impact-Influenced Basement Rocks at the Kardla Impact Crater, Estonia, Meteoritics; vol. 34, No. 4, Supp. p. A64. 1999.
Kirsimae, Kalle., Suuroja, S., Kirs, J., Karki, A., Polikarpus, M., Puura, V., Suuroja,K., Hornblende alteration and fluid inclusions in Kardla impact crater, Estonia: Evidence for impact-induced hydrothermal activity, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 37, 449-457 (2002). 2002.
Lindström, M., Ormö, J., Sturkell, E.F.F. and Törnberg,R., Geological information from Ordovician marine impact craters (abstract). GFF, v. 118, pp. A99-A100. 1996.
Masaitis V.L., Structural and compositional heterogeneities of the Earth's crust caused by impact cratering, 1991.
Masaitis, V. L., Danilin, A.N., Maschak, M.S., Raykhlin, A.I., Selivanovskaya, T.V. and Shadenkov,Ye.M., The Geology of Astroblemes (in Russian). Leningrad, Nedra, 231 p. 1980.
Ormo, J., Next step in marine impact studies: combining geological data with numerical simulations for applications in planetary research, Workshop on Impact Cratering. 2003.
Ormo, J., Lindstrom, M., When a cosmic impact strikes the sea bed, Geol. Mag. V.137(1), p.67-80. 2000.
Pirrus, E. A., Tiimaa, R. T., Meteorite craters of Estonia (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteorite Conference, Tallinn, pp. 3-4. 1987.
Plado, J., Pesonen, L.J., Elo, S., Purra, V. and Suuroja,K., Geophysical research on the Kardla impact structure, Hiiumaa Island, Estonia. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, pp. 289-298. 1996.
Plado, J., Pesonen, L.J., Elo, S., Puura, V. and Suuroja,K., Geophysical research into the Kärdla meteorite crater, Hiiumaa, Estonia (abstract). Second International Conference. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Impacts. 1994.
Puura, V., Karki, A., Kirs, J., Kirsimae, K., Kleesment, A., Konsa, M., Niin, M., Plado, J., Suuroja, K., Suuroja,S., Impact-Induced Replacement of Plagioclase by K-feldspar in Granitoids and Amphibolites at the Kardla Crater, Estonia, (Gilmour I. and Koeberl C. eds) Impacts and the early Earth, Lecture notes in Earth Sciences, 91, pp. 417. 2000.
Puura, V., Karki, A., Kirs, J., Kirsimae, K., Suuroja, K., Suuroja,S., Orthoclase-Enriched Granitoids Beneath the Kardla Crater, Estonia, Meteoritics; vol. 34, No. 4, Supp. p. A95. 1999.
Puura, V. A., Kirsimäe, K., Kivisilla, I., Plado, J., Puura, I. and Suuoja,K., Geochemical anomalies of terrestrial compounds in nonmelted impactites at Kärdla, Estonia (abstract). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, p. A5. 1996.
Puura, V. A., Plado, J., Kirsimae, K., Kivisilla, J., Kleesment, A. and Niin,M., Geological, geochemical, mineralogical, geophysical, and petrophysical studies for structural modeling of the Kärdla crater, Estonia (abstract). Meteoritics & Planetary Science, v. 31, p. A113. 1996.
Puura, V. A., Kirs, J., Plado, J., Suuroja, K. and Suuroja,S., Shocked rocks of the Kardla crater: Divergency in chemistry, mineralogy, fluid inclusions and petrophysical properties (abstract). European Science Foundation, Third International Workshop. Shock Wave Behaviour of Solids in Nature and Experiments, Limoges, France. 1994.
Puura, V. A., Suuroja, K., Ordovician marine impact at Kardla (NW Estonia) (abstract). Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth, First International Workshop, Nordlingen, Germany. 1993.
Puura, V. A., Suuroja, K., Middle Ordovician astrobleme at Kardla, Hiiumaa Island, West Estonian Archipelago (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 27, pp. 279. 1992.
Puura, V. A., Suuroja, K., Ordovician impact crater at Kardla, Hiiumaa Island, Estonia. Tectonophysics, v. 216, pp. 143-156. 1992.
Puura, V. A., Suuroja, K., Ordovician impact crater at Kardla, island of Hiiumaa, Estonia (abstract). Pesonen, L.J. and Niemisara, H., eds., Symposium Fennoscandian Impact Structures, p. 30. 1990.
Puura, V. A., Kala, E.A. and Suuroja,K.A., The structure of the Kardla astrobleme (island of Hiiuma, Northwestern Estonia) (in Russian). Meteoritika, v. 48, pp. 150-161. 1989.
Puura, V. A., Suuroya, K. A., Structure of Kyardla buried astrobleme (in Russian). XX All-Union Meteortie Conference, Tallinn, pp. 49-50. 1987.
Sundblad, K., Lead isotopic composition of glaena associated with the Early Palaeozoic meleorite imapct structures at Lockne (Sweden) and Kärdla (Estonia) (abstract). Second International Conference. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Impacts. 1994.
Sundblad, K., Lead isotopic composition of galena associated with the Early Palaeozoic meteorite impact structures at Lockne (Sweden) and Kardla (Estonia) (abstract). European Science Foundation, Second International Conference. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Impacts.,. 1994.
Suuroja, K., Post-impact history of the Kärdla crater (abstract). Second International Workshop. Impact Cratering and Evolution of Planet Earth. The Identification and Characterization of Impacts. 1994.
Törnberg, R., Impact-related resurge sedimentology as exemplified by the Lockne, Tvären and Kärdla structures (abstract). GFF, v. 118, p. A102. 1996.
Versh, E., Kirsimae, K., Joeleht, A., Plado,J., Cooling of the Kardla impact crater: I. The mineral paragenetic sequence observation, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 40 , n. 1 , p. 3-21. 2005.
* pre-1977 K-Ar, Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages recalculated using the decay constants of Steiger and Jager (1977) Ages in millions of years (Ma) before present.

** Abbreviations: C - Crystalline Target; C-Ms - Metasedimentary Target; M - Mixed Target (i.e.sedimentary strata overlying crystalline basement); S - sedimentary target (i.e. no crystalline rocks affected by the impact event). From Osinski. G. R., Spray J. G., and Grieve R. A. F. 2007. Impact melting in sedimentary target rocks: A synthesis. In The Sedimentary Record of Meteorite Impacts, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Editors: Evans K. Horton W., King D., Morrow J., and Warme J. Geological Society of America: Boulder, in press.

***From Koeberl,C. Identification of meteoritic components in impactites. 1998, Koeberl, C. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts. 2007 and PASSC Files. (IAB, IIIAB, IIIB, IIID - Iron Meteorite)